TIFF and Load File Support
Litigation Review Databases
This technical note discusses Lexbe Online's support for TIFF
images and associated text and load files.
Background on TIFFs and
TIF or TIFF (“Tagged Image File
Format”) is a graphic file image used for online
transmission of faxes and in some litigation support
document review programs.
As a raster file image, a TIFF is like a picture and
ultimately represents dots that form to make up letters
or other images. TIFF files usually do not embed computer
readable text, like other text based file formats (e.g.,
Word, Excel) or a mixed format like PDF, that can
include both an image of a document and embedded text.
TIFFs are widely used in first generation litigation support
programs like Concordance, Summation and Ringtail. As these programs were
first developed in 80s and 90s, they predated widespread use of the PDF file
format. These litigation databases originally and still make document
images readable and searchable by associating a separate text file or database
entry with each
TIFF image file as part of the software interface. While TIFFs can be
multi-paged, they often are single-paged when used in these programs.
Litigation support 'load files' are ASCII text files that include references
to TIFF images of documents (e.g., SMITH 012345.TIF), corresponding text files
(e.g., SMITH 012345.TXT) produced using optical
character recognition (OCR), document break notation to indicate when documents
start and end, and sometimes file metadata for some document types. The files
have specific extensions to specicy the assocated litigation support program:
.DAT for Concordance and ,DII for AD Summation. Load files
are needed by litigation support programs that rely on TIFFs to
allow the user to search and find corresponding document images. OCR text
alternatively may be included in the load file directly in many of these
programs as well, causing the DAT or DII load files to be quite large.
recently developed litigation document
management systems are often file based, rather
than single-page TIFF image based. A file-based
litigation document review system is
designed to work with each file separately
and handles multiple-paged files of many
types, including PDF and native files (Word,
Lexbe Online can handle TIFFs with load
files, PDFs and over 100 image files, all in
the same case for integrated search and
review of different source file types.
Support for TIFF and Load files in Lexbe Online
Lexbe Online supports review of TIFF and load files:
- Lexbe Online supports import using load files from
Concordance, AD Summation, Ringtail, Relativity, Catalyst, and
other commonly-used litigation support review programs.
- Information from load files can include Bates
numbers, extracted data such as email or file dte,
author, recipients, document type and container file
associations, coding or tagging, and other file
metadata. All this information can be imported
into Lexbe Online. Following import, the user
can filter, sort and search the data.
- The image TIFF files are viewable in the Lexbe Online
document viewer and single-page TIFFs are grouped into documents
using document breaks from the associated load file.
- Associated extracted or optical character recognition (OCR)
text is indexed within the Lexbe Online database and available
for search. If OCR text is unavailable, Lexbe eDiscovery
TIFF OCR+ service to create and link OCR to make documents
Find out more about
Lexbe Online, or request and a
free trial or demo.
Options to Convert to Searchable PDF
To make TIFF images more portable, you may consider converting them into multi-paged
PDFs. This approach has the following advantages:
- Document images are retained in the PDF and PDF files are searchable
without reference to separate text files.
- All pages in a document are grouped into one
- Documents are portable (the 'P' in 'PDF), so users can view
the documents on any computer with Acrobat reader, and do not
need a license to TIFF-based litigation document management
- OCR text in a 'text-under-image' PDF lines up with the
visible text directly on the page, rather than in a separate
- PDFs can be directly annotated using Adobe Acrobat Pro and
other PDF editing programs.
Adobe Acrobat Pro and many other PDF programs will convert TIFFs to
PDFs in low volumes.
Lexbe also provides a paid TIFF to searchable PDF conversion service called
TIFF to PDF+ for jobs that might be too big for you to easily
handle. if you are interested, we would be happy to
provide you with a
Do you have other questions or does this help document not address your needs? Please let us know at our
All services described on this and related pages are subject to Lexbe's